Une collaboration syndicale à promouvoir

Depuis plusieurs années, le Syndicat national des enseignants du secondaire et du supérieur (SNESS) et le Syndicat national des enseignants africains du Burkina (SNEA-B) entretiennent une collaboration avec la Fédération canadienne des enseignantes et des enseignants (FCE). Ce partenariat entre le Burkina Faso et le Canada constitue une occasion incroyable pour les enseignantes et les enseignants des deux pays d’apprendre, de partager leurs connaissances, d’échanger et de renouveler leur engagement envers leur profession et leur syndicat respectif.

La FCE s’emploie notamment à défendre l’éducation publique, à promouvoir la profession enseignante et à fournir un appui aux organisations Membres et aux membres affiliés à l’Internationale de l’Éducation ainsi qu’au corps enseignant des quatre coins du pays. Elle s’attaque aux questions sociales qui influent sur la santé et le bien-être des enfants et des jeunes au Canada et à l’étranger.

À cet effet, le SNESS, le SNEA-B et la FCE ont élaboré des activités pour 2017-2018 pour les enseignantes et les enseignants du Burkina Faso dans un même but : améliorer l’éducation pour toutes et tous — filles, garçons, enseignantes, enseignants, membres des syndicats. Ces activités reposent sur le renforcement des capacités et l’égalité entre les sexes.

La FCE est fière d’être partie prenante de cette collaboration avec le SNESS et le SNEA-B.

Claudia Guidolin
Consultante auprès de la FCE

We The Educators — A new conversation about the future of public education

Education systems around the world are now witness to a variety of educational changes and improvements, numerous social and economic disruptions, and the onset of rapid technological advances that were unimaginable in the past. Within this tsunami of change, innovative teaching and learning practices that employ emerging technologies are sweeping into schools and classrooms with the broader goal of transforming student learning.

While technologies present education systems with both significant opportunities and challenges, some of the most profound developments are related to standardisation, personalisation, privatisation, and the datafication of learning.

To this end, Education International (EI), the Canadian Teachers’ Federation (CTF) and the Alberta Teachers’ Association (ATA) identified a need to explore the interdisciplinary research underpinning technology-driven datafication and its effects on teaching and learning around the world.

We the Educators - Educational Technology and the Personalisation, Standardisation, Privatisation and Datafication of EducationThis literature review (PDF – 601 KB) attempts to provide a balanced view of the interdisciplinary concepts under investigation in order to inform an analysis of the converging fields of educational technology and datafication. It is part of a larger project, entitled “We the Educators” (www.wetheeducators.com), which brings the concepts explored in this research to life through video and animation in multiple languages.

It is hoped that this project will stimulate a rich public dialogue—and greater professional scrutiny—around the relationship between the datafication of education systems and the (de)personalization, privatization and standardization of student learning. We invite colleagues and advocates for quality public education worldwide to draw on this research and to use the videos to continue the conversations.

This project is the result of a global collaborative effort of many talented people including Graham Brown-Martin and teams from EI (Angelo Gavrielatos, Nikola Wachter and Mar Candela), the ATA (Dr Philip McRae, Dr Lindsay Yakimyshyn and Dr J-C Couture) and the Canadian Teachers’ Federation (Cassandra Hallett, Bernie Froese-Germain). The collective attention, analysis, support and imagination provided by all of these individuals has brought to life a project with the intention to inform and help to (re)shape the future of teaching and learning.

All of the partners in this project will continue to research and advocate for the conditions of professional practice required to create teaching and learning environments that advance the goal of strong publicly-funded public education systems: to educate all children and youth well.


Please follow, like and connect to these platforms and help us spread this conversation.

Website: https://wetheeducators.com/
Twitter: https://twitter.com/WeTheEducators
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/WeTheEducators
Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/WeTheEducators/
Vimeo: http://vimeo.com/WeTheEducators
YouTube: http://bit.ly/WTEyoutube

We The Educators  – Une nouvelle conversation sur l’avenir de l’éducation publique

Les systèmes d’éducation du monde entier sont aujourd’hui témoins de toutes sortes de changements et d’améliorations, de multiples bouleversements sociaux et économiques, et d’innovations technologiques rapides qui étaient inimaginables il n’y a pas si longtemps. Au milieu de ce tsunami de changements, des pratiques d’enseignement et d’apprentissage novatrices qui font usage des nouvelles technologies déferlent sur les écoles et les salles de classe avec le vaste objectif de transformer l’apprentissage des élèves.

Si les technologies présentent aux systèmes d’éducation à la fois des possibilités et des défis énormes, certains des plus grands bouleversements sont liés à la standardisation, à la personnalisation, à la privatisation et à la mise en données (datafication en anglais) de l’apprentissage.

Voilà pourquoi l’Internationale de l’Éducation (IE), la Fédération canadienne des enseignantes et des enseignants (FCE) et l’Alberta Teachers’ Association (ATA) ont senti le besoin d’explorer la recherche interdisciplinaire que suscitent la technologie éducationnelle et la mise en données, et leurs effets sur l’enseignement et l’apprentissage dans le monde.

wetheeducators-revue-de-la-litteratureLa présente revue de la littérature (PDF – 610 Ko) tente de brosser un portrait équilibré de divers concepts interdisciplinaires afin de guider l’analyse des domaines convergents que sont la technologie éducationnelle et la mise en données. Elle s’inscrit dans un projet plus vaste intitulé « Nous, gens de l’éducation! » (www.wetheeducators.com), qui présente les concepts étudiés ici de manière plus concrète à l’aide de vidéos et d’animations produites dans plusieurs langues.

Nous espérons que ce projet suscitera un débat public riche sur la relation entre la mise en données des systèmes d’éducation et la (dé)personnalisation, la privatisation et la standardisation de l’apprentissage des élèves, et qu’il encouragera un examen professionnel plus rigoureux de cette relation. Nous invitons nos collègues et les personnes qui militent en faveur d’une éducation publique de qualité aux quatre coins du monde à se servir de cette recherche et des vidéos afin de poursuivre le dialogue.

Ce projet est le résultat d’un exercice de collaboration international mené par un grand nombre de personnes aussi talentueuses les unes que les autres, dont Graham Brown-Martin et les équipes de l’IE (Angelo Gavrielatos, Nikola Wachter et Mar Candela), Cassandra Hallett et Bernie Froese-Germain (de la FCE), ainsi que Philip McRae, Ph. D., Lindsay Yakimyshyn, Ph. D., et J-C Couture, Ph. D. (de l’ATA). L’attention, l’analyse, le soutien et l’imagination de chacune de ces personnes ont donné lieu à un projet qui a pour but d’informer et de (re)façonner l’avenir de l’enseignement et de l’apprentissage.

Tous les partenaires du projet continueront d’étudier et de défendre les conditions d’exercice nécessaires à la création de milieux d’enseignement et d’apprentissage qui permettront aux systèmes solides d’éducation publique, financée par l’État, d’atteindre leur objectif : bien instruire tous les enfants et tous les jeunes sans exception.


Site Web : https://wetheeducators.com/
Twitter : https://twitter.com/WeTheEducators
Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/WeTheEducators
Instagram : https://www.instagram.com/WeTheEducators/
Vimeo : http://vimeo.com/WeTheEducators
YouTube : http://bit.ly/WTEyoutube

How Do Canadian Teens Make Decisions When Sharing Photos?

By MediaSmarts

To Share or Not to Share: How Teens Make Privacy Decisions about Photos on Social Media

Building on MediaSmarts’ findings on youth and privacy from our Young Canadians in a Wired World research, our new qualitative study, To Share or Not to Share: How Teens Make Privacy Decisions about Photos on Social Media (PDF – 1.1 MB) examines the reasoning that teens apply when sharing photos online.

Knowing how young people understand their information rights is key to digital literacy education. Because the regulatory model that protects young people’s online privacy assumes that they will choose not to post anything that they want kept private, privacy education initiatives typically focus on telling young people not to post personal information online. However, our Young Canadians in a Wired World research suggests that young people do not define privacy as non-disclosure, but instead seek to negotiate an appropriate level of privacy from peers and family members through a set of social norms that govern who sees what. Given this difference, we undertook this study to learn more about how teens perceive and approach privacy online so we can develop digital literacy programs that reflect their perceptions and are responsive to their needs.

For this research we interviewed 18 Canadian youth between the ages 13 and 16 to find out if and how their decisions to post photos are rooted in a desire to manage their reputation, and whether or not they actively consent to the collection and use of their personal information by the corporations that own the photo-sharing platforms that they use. We also mapped their knowledge about data protection principles and asked about any experiences they’d had interacting with corporations to exercise their rights under existing fair information practices, such as being able to access and delete personal information.

Performing for the audience

Everybody says that social media is connect with friends and whatnot, and to a certain extent, sure. But, when everybody goes on it, I feel like they’re always thinking the same thing: gotta look good. (Margaret, female, 15)

The most common motivation the teens gave for sharing photos online was to build and maintain a consciously crafted image. They often spoke of being aware that the audiences they reached through different apps would judge them, and of the need to choose and, in some cases, edit their photos to fit into what was acceptable and desirable on each platform: “People will judge you… Eight hundred people would see that ugly photo of you and they would probably judge you.” (Nico, male, 13)

The teens we interviewed almost exclusively use Instagram and Snapchat for sharing photos, and what makes a “good photo” depends in part on the app they use: for example, photos on Instagram are expected to look “professional” and also fit into a consistent “theme” or “look” for the account, which might be based on a particular topic or colour palette. While photos on Snapchat are expected to look fun and spontaneous, they are still carefully crafted to create that effect.

You want to post to impress people, and with Instagram, you don’t even think about your own self, you can’t just think, oh, what will people think, will they like this photo? You kind of stop thinking about your own needs. (Pavlina, female, 14)

Contrary to the popular conception of “selfies” as being the standard social media photo, these actually made up fewer than one in ten of the photos that were shared: “I feel like there’s just something weird and embarrassing about like going to your room to take some selfies.” (Margaret, female, 15) Instead, these teens are most likely to share photos of things like landscapes, consumer goods, and sunsets than those that had people in them. This preference for “safe” photos also leads many of them to carefully avoid any possibly controversial topics: “Politics, religion, sexuality, race – those are the things that I won’t do on social media.” (Suyin, female, 15)

Controlling audiences

As opposed to simply ‘not posting’, most of these teens’ efforts are aimed at controlling who sees particular photos and preventing them from being spread to unintended audiences. The main tool that they use to ensure that only desired audiences see particular photos is selecting which platform and account to post them on. Snapchat’s ability to notify users if a screenshot of their photo is taken was mentioned by several of the teens as one of the most valuable features of the platform, but this is prized less as a technical tool than as an implicit social signal that a photo should not be spread beyond the initial audience: “It’s considered rude to take a screenshot of somebody’s Snapchat… because you sent them that picture like for however many seconds and they’re not really respecting that.” (Courtney, female, 16)

Participants in our Young Canadians in a Wired World survey mostly expected that their friends would ask before posting a photo of them, particularly one that is bad or embarrassing. While the teens in this study mostly agreed that the people in a photo had a right to decide whether or not that photo was shared, they are more likely to think about how their friends would feel before posting, as opposed to directly asking them for permission. Similarly, while the top strategy reported in Young Canadians for dealing with an unwanted photo was to ask the poster to take it down, participants in this study mostly prefer to rely on indirect signals, hints and nudges to ask that photos be deleted: one participant, for example, sent a copy of the offending picture with herself edited out to the person who had shared it.

Little awareness of consumer rights or the commercial environment

The teens we interviewed do not generally think of the platforms they use as businesses, or understand how using them makes those corporations money, a finding that’s in line with the Young Canadians participants’ generally poor understanding of corporations’ interest in their personal information. While these teens have a variety of strategies for managing their online identities in the eyes of their imagined audiences, when it comes to corporate access to their data they have only two: hoping that the sheer number of photos will provide them with privacy by obscurity and rationalizing that they have not posted anything “that would come back to haunt them.”

“I highly doubt they’d pick a random girl from Ottawa’s pictures to like stare at ‘cause I don’t think that’s something that’ll happen. I hope not.” (Amira, female, 16)

In almost every case, the teens had not read or understood the platforms’ privacy policies and terms of service and did not feel that reading these would provide them with any useful information or help them understand their rights or possible remedies when dealing with the corporations that own the platforms. Most said this was because these documents were too long and difficult to read – not surprising considering that only a third of the participants in Young Canadians had ever had anyone explain a privacy policy to them. The teens in this study also had little or no awareness of their legal rights as consumers under PIPEDA or of the fair information principles that corporations are required to abide by when handling personal information. However, they expressed strong opinions when asked about the idea of platforms looking at their photos or using photos for purposes that they hadn’t agreed to.

I really do not know [why corporations keep photos] ‘cause what could they do with your picture? Why do they have it? What could they do with it? It doesn’t make sense to have it if they don’t even know you… I don’t really want them to have my picture. I mean what would they do with it? It’s actually scary. (Kaya, female, 14)

As far as these teens are concerned, the platforms have not asked them for consent to use their photos or personal information, nor do they feel they’ve given it by agreeing with a platform’s terms and conditions. Instead, they imagine giving consent to corporations in the same way as they do for their peers: one photo at a time, and with an implicit understanding of their intentions:

I don’t even think that they should have access to the photo. They made the social media and everything, but having access to people’s photos is just too much. Especially if it’s a private account, they obviously made it private so random people don’t see, and then Instagram is doing exactly what the owner of the account didn’t want. (Pavlina, female, 14)

As this exploratory research confirms, taking and sending photos is something the teens we interviewed do every day. Despite its routine quality, though, they put a significant amount of thought and effort into making sure that different audiences see them as they want to be seen.

Though they have little awareness of the ways that the corporate owners of their favourite platforms make use of their photos and other data, these teens have a strong sense that their photos are – or ought to be – their property, and that those corporations should seek their consent in the same way they expect of their peers. These findings help to show us the way forward in educating youth about the ways in which they participate in the information economy, and about their rights as digital citizens:

  • Digital literacy education. Privacy education that focuses on technical tools, such as platforms’ privacy settings, are unlikely to be successful as these teens did not make significant use of them. Given their interest in controlling audiences, it would be more effective to educate youth about the ability of these tools to limit who can see individual posts or photos rather than broadly keeping content “private.”The participants’ reliance on social norms and signals to manage their privacy also shows how important it is that privacy ethics be a part of digital literacy education. Youth need to be made aware of the ethical dimensions of sharing others’ photos and encouraged to confront both the “empathy traps” of digital communication and the “moral blind spots” by which some peers may be seen to have given up their right to control what happens to their images.
  • Digital citizenship education. Young people need to be made aware of their rights as digital citizens and encouraged to participate in civic activities online and to take an active role in forming the cultures and values of their online communities. Digital literacy and online safety programs must also be careful to avoid using scare tactics or reflecting attitudes that exaggerate the risks of speaking out online.
  •    Consumer awareness education. The most serious gap identified in the participants’ knowledge is in this area. It is impossible to even begin consumer education until students know that they are participating in an economic transaction, and understand at least the basic aspects of the deal they have agreed to. Helping youth to understand how the platforms that they use make money off of their participation is essential to making them informed consumers who can give genuine consent to the use of their personal information.

Comment les adolescents canadiens prennent-ils des décisions lors du partage de photos?

Par HabiloMédias

S’appuyant sur les découvertes de HabiloMédias sur les jeunes et la vie privée tirées de notre recherche Jeunes Canadiens dans un monde branché, notre nouvelle étude qualitative, Partager ou ne pas partager : comment les adolescents gèrent-ils leur vie privée en lien avec le partage de photos sur les médias sociaux (PDF – 1 Mo), a pour objectif d’examiner le raisonnement privilégié par les adolescents lorsqu’ils partagent des photos en ligne.

Comprendre l’étendue des connaissances des jeunes relativement à leur droit à l’information est essentiel pour leur inculquer efficacement des compétences numériques. Étant donné que le modèle réglementaire qui protège la vie privée virtuelle des jeunes tient pour acquis que ces derniers ne publieront pas des renseignements qu’ils désirent garder confidentiels, les initiatives en matière d’éducation à la vie privée se contentent généralement de dire aux jeunes de ne pas diffuser de contenu à caractère personnel en ligne. Toutefois, notre recherche intitulée Jeunes Canadiens dans un monde branché montre que les jeunes ne perçoivent pas la confidentialité comme la non-divulgation de renseignements personnels. Ils cherchent plutôt à adapter le degré de confidentialité en fonction de l’audience ‒ leurs pairs ou des membres de leur famille ‒ en s’appuyant sur un ensemble de normes sociales qui visent à déterminer ce que chacun sera en mesure de voir. Conscients de cette nuance, nous avons entrepris cette étude pour en apprendre davantage sur la manière dont les adolescents perçoivent et s’approprient le concept de vie privée en ligne. Ainsi, nous serons en mesure de concevoir des programmes d’enseignement des compétences numériques qui reflètent les perceptions des jeunes et qui sont adaptés à leurs besoins.

Dans le cadre de cette recherche, nous avons interrogé 18 Canadiens âgés de 13 à 16 ans afin de déterminer si leurs décisions de publier des photos sont motivées par leur désir de préserver leur réputation et s’ils consentent activement à ce que leurs renseignements personnels soient collectés et utilisés par les sociétés propriétaires des plateformes de partage de photos qu’ils utilisent. Nous avons également mesuré leur connaissance des principes de base relatifs à la protection des données et les avons interrogés à propos des échanges qu’ils ont pu avoir avec des sociétés en vue de faire valoir leurs droits en vertu des pratiques loyales en matière d’information, comme celui de pouvoir accéder à leurs renseignements personnels et de les supprimer.

Se donner en spectacle

Tout le monde dit que les médias sociaux servent à rester en contact avec nos amis ou d’autres personnes et dans une certaine mesure, c’est vrai. Mais puisque tout le monde les utilise, j’ai l’impression qu’on pense tous la même chose : il faut bien paraître. (Margaret, adolescente de 15 ans)

La principale motivation des adolescents qui partagent des photos en ligne consiste à créer et à préserver une certaine image d’eux-mêmes, produite en toute connaissance de cause. Ils réitèrent le fait qu’ils sont conscients que les internautes avec qui ils tissent des liens virtuels peuvent porter un jugement à leur égard. De fait, ils ressentent le besoin de choisir et, parfois, de modifier leurs photos pour se conformer à ce qui est considéré comme acceptable et souhaitable sur chaque plateforme : « Les gens vont te juger… Huit cents personnes peuvent voir une horrible photo de toi et vont probablement te juger. » (Nico, adolescent de 13 ans)

Les adolescents que nous avons interrogés utilisent presque exclusivement Instagram ou Snapchat pour partager des photos. Leur conception de ce qui constitue une « bonne » photo varie notamment en fonction de l’application utilisée. Par exemple, ils s’attendent à ce que les photos publiées sur Instagram aient l’air « professionnelles » et qu’elles soient cohérentes avec l’objectif du compte, qui peut véhiculer un thème précis ou mettre en valeur une certaine palette de couleurs. À l’inverse, bien que les photos Snapchat se caractérisent par leur côté amusant et spontané, elles sont soigneusement conçues pour créer un tel effet.

Tu veux publier pour impressionner les gens, et avec Instagram, tu ne penses même pas à l’image que tu projettes. Tu ne peux pas te dire : oh, attends. Qu’est-ce que les gens vont penser de moi? Vont-ils aimer ma photo? Tu en viens à cesser de penser à tes propres besoins, d’une certaine façon. (Pavlina, adolescente de 14 ans)

La croyance populaire veut que les selfies (égoportraits) soient les photos les plus populaires sur les médias sociaux, mais en réalité, ils représentent moins de 10 % des photos partagées. « Aller dans sa chambre pour prendre des selfies, ça me semble un peu bizarre et embarrassant. » (Margaret, adolescente de 15 ans) Les adolescents qui pensent comme Margaret préfèrent partager des photos de paysages, de biens de consommation ou de couchers de soleil plutôt que des portraits. Cette préférence pour les photos à caractère neutre incite plusieurs d’entre eux à éviter soigneusement d’aborder tous les sujets potentiellement controversés : « La politique, la religion, la sexualité et l’origine ethnique sont toutes des choses dont j’évite de parler sur les médias sociaux. » (Suyin, adolescente de 15 ans)

Contrôler l’audience

Plutôt que de s’abstenir de publier, la plupart des adolescents cherchent à contrôler l’audience de certaines photos et, ainsi, à éviter qu’elles soient diffusées auprès d’une audience non désirée. Choisir la plateforme ou le compte où ces photos seront publiées constitue pour eux le meilleur moyen de s’assurer que seules les personnes qui y sont autorisées pourront voir certaines photos. À titre d’exemple, Snapchat est en mesure d’envoyer une notification à ses utilisateurs lorsqu’une capture d’écran de leur photo est prise. Plusieurs adolescents considèrent cette fonctionnalité comme l’une des caractéristiques les plus utiles de la plateforme. Toutefois, selon eux, il s’agit moins d’une fonctionnalité que d’un code social implicite visant à rappeler qu’une photo ne devrait pas être diffusée à une audience autre que celle qui y est autorisée. « C’est considéré comme inapproprié de faire une capture d’écran du Snapchat envoyé par une personne, puisque tu choisis d’envoyer une photo à certaines personnes pour quelques secondes et c’est comme si elles ne respectaient pas ce que tu voulais. » (Courtney, adolescente de 16 ans)

La plupart des répondants à notre sondage Jeunes Canadiens dans un monde branché s’attendent à ce que leurs amis leur demandent la permission avant de publier une photo d’eux, à plus forte raison si la photo en question est embarrassante ou gênante. La plupart des adolescents interrogés dans le cadre de cette étude s’entendent pour dire que les personnes qui figurent sur une photo devraient pouvoir décider si cette photo sera partagée ou non. Toutefois, ils ont tendance à se demander comment leurs amis se sentiraient s’ils dévoilaient la photo plutôt que de leur demander directement la permission de la publier. De la même façon, bien que la meilleure stratégie rapportée dans le sondage Jeunes Canadiens quant à la manière de traiter une photo indésirable consiste à demander à celui ou celle qui l’a diffusée de la retirer, la plupart des répondants préfèrent envoyer des signaux indirects et faire des sous-entendus pour manifester leur désir que les photos soient supprimées. À titre d’exemple, une répondante a admis avoir envoyé une copie d’une photo embarrassante d’elle-même, délibérément modifiée, à la personne qui l’avait partagée.

Peu sensibilisés quant aux droits des consommateurs ou à l’environnement commercial

Les adolescents que nous avons interrogés n’ont généralement pas tendance à concevoir les plateformes qu’ils utilisent comme des entreprises. De plus, ils ne sont généralement pas conscients que l’utilisation de telles plateformes génère des revenus pour ces entreprises, un constat qui va de pair avec la faible conscientisation des répondants au sondage Jeunes Canadiens par rapport à l’intérêt des sociétés pour leurs renseignements personnels. Ces adolescents qui ont recours à une multitude de stratégies pour contrôler la manière dont leur audience perçoit leurs identités virtuelles n’entrevoient que deux façons de gérer l’accès des sociétés à leurs données : espérer que leurs photos passeront inaperçues dans l’océan de contenu publié et se convaincre que leurs publications ne sont pas de nature à « revenir les hanter ».

« Je doute fortement qu’ils choisissent une fille au hasard parmi toutes les photos publiées à Ottawa et qu’ils décident de l’observer. Je ne crois pas que c’est quelque chose qui pourrait arriver. Enfin, je l’espère. » (Amira, adolescente de 16 ans)

Dans presque tous les cas, les adolescents n’avaient pas lu ou compris les politiques de confidentialité des plateformes et les conditions d’utilisation. Ils n’avaient pas l’impression que la lecture de ces documents leur fournirait des renseignements utiles ou les aiderait à comprendre l’étendue de leurs droits ou des recours qu’ils peuvent intenter lorsqu’ils traitent avec les sociétés propriétaires de ces plateformes. La plupart ont affirmé que ces documents sont trop longs et difficiles à lire, ce qui n’est guère surprenant étant donné que seulement le tiers des répondants au sondage Jeunes Canadiens soutient que quelqu’un leur a déjà expliqué le fonctionnement d’une politique de confidentialité. Par ailleurs, les adolescents interrogés dans le cadre de cette étude détiennent peu ou pas de connaissances en ce qui a trait à leurs droits à titre de consommateurs, protégés par la LPRPDE, ou aux pratiques loyales en matière d’information que les sociétés sont tenues de respecter lorsqu’elles traitent des renseignements personnels. Cependant, ils expriment une opinion tranchée dès qu’on évoque la possibilité que les plateformes regardent leurs photos ou les utilisent à des fins auxquelles ils n’ont pas consenti.

Je ne sais pas du tout [pourquoi les compagnies gardent les photos], qu’est-ce qu’ils peuvent bien faire avec nos photos? Pourquoi est-ce qu’ils les ont? Qu’est-ce qu’ils peuvent bien faire avec? Qu’est-ce que ça leur donne d’avoir nos photos, s’ils ne nous connaissent même pas? Je ne veux pas qu’ils aient ma photo. Qu’est-ce qu’ils veulent faire avec? Ça fait peur ». (Kaya, adolescente de 14 ans)

Dans le cas de ces adolescents, les plateformes ne leur ont pas demandé l’autorisation d’utiliser leurs photos ou leurs renseignements personnels. Ils n’avaient pas non plus l’impression d’y avoir consenti en acceptant les conditions d’utilisation. Au lieu de cela, ils s’imaginent qu’ils donnent leur consentement aux entreprises de la même façon qu’ils le font avec leurs pairs : une photo à la fois, et en tenant pour acquis que leurs intentions sont implicitement comprises.

Je ne crois pas qu’elles devraient avoir accès à ma photo. Elles créent les médias sociaux et tout cela, mais avoir accès aux photos des gens, c’est trop, surtout s’il s’agit d’un compte personnel. Si les gens créent de tels comptes, c’est parce qu’ils ne veulent pas que n’importe qui voit leurs photos, et voilà qu’Instagram fait exactement ce que le propriétaire du compte ne veut pas. (Pavlina, adolescente de 14 ans)

Comme cette recherche exploratoire le confirme, les adolescents que nous avons interrogés prennent et envoient des photos sur une base quotidienne. Bien que de telles actions puissent sembler anodines, ils déploient des efforts considérables pour s’assurer que leurs différents publics voient ces photos de la manière dont ils veulent qu’elles soient perçues.

Bien qu’ils soient peu conscients de l’utilisation que les sociétés propriétaires de leurs plateformes préférées font de leurs photos et de leurs données, ces adolescents ont la ferme conviction que leurs photos leur appartiennent ou devraient leur appartenir, et que ces sociétés devraient obtenir leur autorisation de la même manière que leurs pairs le font. Ces constats contribuent à nous indiquer le chemin à suivre pour éduquer les jeunes quant à la manière dont ils participent à l’économie de l’information et à leurs droits en tant que citoyens numériques :

  • Enseignement des compétences numériques. La sensibilisation à la confidentialité des renseignements personnels, si elle est axée sur le fonctionnement d’outils techniques comme les paramètres de confidentialité des plateformes, connaîtra assurément peu de succès, puisque ces adolescents n’ont pas vraiment utilisé de tels paramètres. Étant donné l’intérêt de ces jeunes pour le contrôle de l’audience, il serait préférable de leur montrer comment ces outils peuvent les aider à déterminer qui peut voir certaines publications ou photos plutôt que de leur dire de veiller à ce que tout le contenu demeure « privé ».Le fait que les répondants misent sur le respect des normes sociales et des signaux envoyés pour gérer leur vie privée montre également l’importance de parler d’éthique privée dans le cadre de l’enseignement des compétences numériques. Les jeunes doivent prendre conscience des enjeux éthiques associés au partage des photos d’autrui. Ils doivent également être encouragés à éviter à la fois les « pièges de l’empathie » associés à la communication numérique et les « pièges éthiques » qui peuvent leur faire croire que certains de leurs pairs ont renoncé à leur droit de contrôler l’utilisation qui est faite de leurs photos.
  • Éducation à la citoyenneté numérique. Il est important de sensibiliser les jeunes à leurs droits en tant que citoyens numériques. Ils doivent être encouragés à participer à des activités civiques en ligne et à jouer un rôle actif dans la définition des pratiques et des valeurs partagées au sein de leurs communautés virtuelles. Ceux qui ont pour mission de voir à l’éducation numérique des jeunes et de diffuser les programmes de sécurité en ligne devraient également jouer de prudence afin d’éviter d’avoir recours à des tactiques de peur ou d’adopter des attitudes qui amplifient les risques associés au fait de communiquer en ligne.
  • Sensibilisation des consommateurs. La faiblesse la plus importante en ce qui a trait aux connaissances des participants est liée à cet aspect. Il est impossible d’amorcer le processus de sensibilisation si les élèves ignorent qu’ils participent à une transaction économique et ne comprennent pas au moins les principes de base du contrat auquel ils ont adhéré. Aider les jeunes à comprendre comment leur utilisation des plateformes génère des revenus pour la société propriétaire est essentiel pour qu’ils deviennent des consommateurs avertis et soient en mesure de réellement consentir à l’utilisation de leurs renseignements personnels.

Le rapport Partager ou ne pas partager : Comment les adolescents prennent des décisions en matière de vie privée à propos des photos sur les réseaux sociaux (PDF – 1 Mo) est fondé sur les résultats d’entrevues menées en 2016 auprès d’adolescents de 13 à 16 ans. La recherche est un partenariat entre HabiloMédias et le projet eQuality Project et a été rendue possible grâce à la contribution financière du Commissariat à la protection de la vie privée du Canada.

When crisis for many means opportunity for some: Private profit and the education of Syrian refugees

By Fred van Leeuwen, General Secretary, Education International

The war in Syria has been on the front pages of newspapers for six years now. We have witnessed the plight of those who flee, the long winters in refugee camp tents. But little is said about the fate of refugee children when it comes to their education. Do they have schools to go to? Who teaches them?facebook_Arabic

A new study answers these questions. “Investing in the Crisis: Private Participation in the Education of Syrian Refugees”, conducted by Francine Menashy and Zeena Zakharia from the University of Massachusetts, examines the situation of 900,000 refugee Syrian children who are out of school in their host countries, with enrolment rates ranging from 70 percent in Jordan to 40 percent in Lebanon and 39 percent in Turkey.

Clearly, there is a deficit in access to education for refugee children – and private providers are actively engaging in that space. Naomi Klein, who coined the term ‘disaster capitalism’, outlined how the private sector is quick to respond whenever a crisis or natural disaster strikes. However, in the case of education in such emergencies, little has been known about the scope and aims of private engagement.

This report highlights a surge in private actor involvement in the Middle East since 2015, with 144 non-state actors currently engaged in Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey. This includes 46 businesses and 15 private foundations, the majority of which have their headquarters in the global north, and 61 percent of which do not have education as their primary mandate.

What other drivers apart from education pull private investment into the region?

In their study, Menashy and Zakharia explore the nature of private sector involvement in the education of Syrian refugees. The study raises questions about the profit motive driving these actors which may be at odds with what is best for refugee children, including their right to quality education. Furthermore, part of the new trend of ‘philanthrocapitalism’, which is increasingly influencing education policies and programmes, is the involvement of private companies in the education of Syrian refugees which may contribute to undermining democratic governance and accountability in education that was once inextricably linked to social dialogue and legislative processes.

While the intervention of private actors may be unavoidable in certain crisis contexts, the study unveils clear areas of concern. Private actors on the ground seem to be insufficiently coordinated, leading to imbalances and duplication of services – a situation which is worsened through inadequate communication between the private actors and the state.

The authors also highlight that private stakeholders often overemphasise the role and presence of technology in education. This emphasis on ICT is questionable given the scarcity of resources, with schools often lacking the most basic infrastructure and tools. Do children need tablets when they have no benches to sit on, no toilets to go to at school? In this regard, governments are well advised to seek and consider the expert voice of teachers and their unions – a vital part of a humanitarian response in education – to ensure that interventions are contextualised and appropriate for the reality in the classroom.

Lastly, the engagement of private actors in Syrian refugee education is translating into political influence, where numerous businesses are becoming key decision-makers in refugee education policymaking. This influence can and will promote an increase in the private provision of education and non-formal education environments. This is deeply problematic due to the overall lack of accountability in terms of educational quality and equity, as previous studies commissioned by Education International have shown.

This report lays bare the undeniable obligation of all governments to ensure that the rights of all children, including refugee children, are met. This includes the provision of free inclusive and equitable quality public education. Beyond this, governments are also required to regulate the involvement of private actors within clear legal frameworks addressing the commercialisation of education in fragile settings. We must challenge the exploitation of those in need. Seeking to profit from those in need cannot be labelled as anything but unethical.

Why is it so hard to close the gender wage gap?

By Kate McInturff

The wage gap is pretty easy to understand. I do a job. You do a job. I get paid more. You get paid less. Unfair. Especially if you and I have the same training, work the same hours, and perform the same kind of tasks. And yet, the gender wage gap persists, right here in Canada, even when education, occupation, experience, and hours of work are considered. The gap is even bigger for Indigenous women, racialized women, immigrant women, and women with disabilities.

Still skeptical? Consider McMaster University. They looked at men and women doing exactly the same job (university professor), at the same place, adjusted for years of work, number of publications, tenure, and rank and they still found that women were paid less than men. More than $3,000 a year less.

So the wage gap is a real thing. And it’s pretty easy to understand that it’s not fair. So why is this problem so hard to fix?

Continue Reading (Behind the Numbers, Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives):
http://behindthenumbers.ca/2017/04/06/hard-close-gender-wage-gap/

Kate McInturff is a senior researcher with the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives.

International Women’s Day – Bill 75 Setback

By Pamela Langille – NSTU

On March 8 we celebrate International Women’s Day. This is a time to take stock of the trials and tribulations we have suffered in seeking equality for women throughout history and reflect on the ongoing struggles of today as we try to progress toward social justice. While there is a great deal of success to celebrate in the women’s liberation movement, it is imperative that we acknowledge the setbacks at our midst. Just recently, the current government passed Bill 75 and imposed a legislated contract on public school teachers. Make no mistake, the austerity measures used in Nova Scotia by the current government and by many other governments around the country and continent, disproportionately harm women.

While seemingly insidious at first glance, the harmful effects of the ongoing attacks on teachers and the public sector are clearly also attacks on women. Teachers, along with other public sector workers, are predominantly women. In Nova Scotia, women compose 77 percent of the teachers in public schools and close to 70 percent of all public sector jobs. The Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives (CCPA) Nova Scotia Budget Watch 2015: Through a Gender Lens document stated that these public sector jobs:

  • represent quality jobs, where pay is on average higher than private sector jobs, with smaller pay equity gaps;
  • are unionized and provide good benefits to women including extended health and maternity benefits. In addition, more women in the public sector have pensions (two thirds, as opposed to only one third in the private sector); and,
  • make valuable contributions to the common good.

The gains of the public sector and women are under attack and while these austerity measures will negatively affect everyone, they will indeed affect women disproportionately.

Unfortunately, instead of the government acting in the public interest by seeking to protect public sector employment, women’s civil and political rights, and increase support for public services to provide quality services that will benefit everyone, along with those who need them most, the government acted in the contrary, and has actually exacerbated inequalities and set back the status of women in Nova Scotia. If the austerity agenda was not harmful enough, the government’s approach to move forward with its agenda was laced with the vilification of teachers and actions that undermine the teaching profession.

When reflecting upon the Minister’s Action Plan and how the current government first began its ‘relationship’ with the teaching profession in this province, I liken it to the words of Sabrina Joy Stevens, who wrote in her blog titled ‘Bad’ Women, Teachers, and Politics: “To recap a few years’ worth of disinformation: Teachers, you may have heard, will determine and (especially) economic future of our entire nation. And because we have so many of these bad, lazy (read: unionized) teachers, our students have performed miserably compared to those in other countries, struggled with a persistent racial “achievement” gap and more, threatening the very future of America. All this they’ve done while enjoying lavish pay, benefits and pensions that have bankrupted our budgets.” Stevens continues, “Just as with the ‘ideal’ woman in a broader sense, there is much praise lavished on the ‘ideal’ teacher, who quietly, unobtrusively and selflessly does her work. But when teachers try to have a voice in the decisions that affect them, or advocate for better pay and working conditions, they’re derided as being selfish.”

When the profession is 77 percent women, there is no need to specify women teachers for the image in people’s minds to be women, as the vilification portrays teachers as overpaid, incompetent, incapable of leadership, and selfish. And certainly let us not forget the drain these teachers [women] have on our economy and the tax payers of Nova Scotia as their Union advocates for fair remuneration and working conditions, which become easier to dismiss when demonized as greedy and unsustainable by the government.

The unionization of workplaces, and especially predominantly female workplaces, is a milestone in women’s civil and political rights, and must not be taken for granted. The attack on unions is real, as we have experienced right here at home with the government’s austerity agenda. Canada is categorized as a high-income country and in high-income countries, the majority of women are employed in the health and education sector. “[This] overrepresentation of women in health and education may be attributed to social assumptions which undervalue the skills required for such jobs. For instance, education – and in particular the teaching of younger children – is considered an extension of women’s traditional, maternal role.” Perhaps these assumptions are also influencing the fallible narrative of the current government that teachers [women] needed to be “put in their place” with Bill 75. After all, it was not just “teachers” who needed to be put in their place, but all of the predominately female public sector.

While the rhetoric often used to justify such austerity measures tries to mask itself as gender-neutral and stick to a message of fiscal sustainability and the need for the public sector to compensate for the province’s “fiscal woes,” this is not only presumptuous, but it is simply untrue. As Jordan Brennan outlines in the CCPA document, Growth, Austerity and the Future of Nova Scotia Prosperity, the province’s public spending does not need to be ‘reined in’: “Nova Scotia has more fiscal room than other Atlantic provinces, and it is in the top half of the Canadian federation when it comes to its account balance.” Not only are austerity measures unnecessary in our current economic state, but the evidence presented by Jordan Brennan suggests they “do more economic damage and social harm than good.”

It is important we remind ourselves that the rhetoric of today has a deeply rooted past that many before us have fought against. Our current voice that challenges the government’s rhetoric has been echoed throughout history. At the 1938 National Education Association Convention in the United States, it was stated that “We have to realize that it is not our educational system alone that counts, but educational systems in all the countries of the world…Good education costs money; people do not like taxes, and sometimes the political leaders see no connection between education and future prosperity.” As disheartening as the sluggish progress can sometimes be, we must also not forget that we have roots just as deep and in solidarity we will persevere. The
struggle for both social justice and a quality public education is something that we must not forget is ongoing and will not progress without challenge from organized workers. Anti-union actions by governments will continue since they know, all too well, it is only those people who are organized, and fighting in solidarity, that will have the force to break the barriers before us. Just as the saying goes, ‘together we bargain, divided we beg.

Sources

Brennan, J. (2016). Growth, Austerity and the Future of Nova Scotian Prosperity. Canadian
Centre for Policy Alternatives Nova Scotia Office. Retrieved from
https://www.policyalternatives.ca/publications/reports/growth-austerity-and-future-nova-scotian-prosperity

Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives Nova Scotia Office. (2015). Nova Scotia Budget Watch
2015: Through a Gender Lens
. Retrieved from
https://www.policyalternatives.ca/sites/default/files/uploads/publications/Nova%20Scotia%20Office/2015/04/NS_Budget_WatchGender.pdf

Canadian Feminist Alliance for International Action. (2015). Canada: Women’s Civil and Political Rights. Retrieved from http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CCPR/Shared%20Documents/
CAN/INT_CCPR_CSS_CAN_20770_E.pdf

International Labour Organization. (2016). Women at Work: Trends 2016. Retrieved from
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—dgreports/–dcomm/—
publ/documents/publication/wcms_457317.pdf

Stevens, S. J. (2012). ‘Bad’ Women, Teachers, and Politics. Retrieved from
http://nepc.colorado.edu/blog/‘bad’-women-teachers-and-politics

The Editors of Rethinking Schools. (2012). The New Misogyny: What It Means for Teachers and
Classrooms
. Retrieved from
http://www.alternet.org/story/156436/the_new_misogyny%3A_what_it_means_for_teachers_and_classrooms

Digital surveillance detrimental to learning, expert says

Digital monitoring of students’ and teachers’ online activities is having a negative effect on learning in Canadian classrooms.

That was one of the messages conveyed during a one-day workshop entitled Privacy Implications in the Networked Classroom, which took place at Barnett House on Thursday, Jan. 26.

Among the lineup of expert speakers was Valerie Steeves, a University of Ottawa researcher who specializes in human rights and technology issues.

“The super surveillance that students experience in the networked classroom is bad for learning, precisely because the ability to retreat and to enjoy privacy from the teacher and from peers is an essential part of the learning process,” Steeves said.

Continue Reading (ATA News, The Alberta Teachers’ Association):
https://www.teachers.ab.ca/Publications/ATA%20News/Volume-51-2016-17/Number-10/Pages/Digital-surveillance-detrimental-to-learning,-expert-says.aspx

By Cory Hare, ATA News Managing Editor

OP-ED: We need to work together to improve our education system

nstu_colourDecember 7, 2016

I just want to take this opportunity to thank Nova Scotians for the outpouring of support teachers have received this past week. At rallies across the province, inside and outside of schools and on-line, the many kind and thoughtful words expressed have been heartening to the NSTU’s 9,300 public school members.

Monday was a difficult day for students and their families, and it was a sad day for teachers. All teachers are committed to providing a safe and healthy learning environment, and the government’s decision to lock out students created an unnecessary burden for parents.

It was because of the thousands who spoke up for teachers, that government reversed course, and allowed students to go back to school.

Teachers want better learning conditions, safer schools and more time to spend helping students instead of doing paperwork. We also have a right to a fair collective bargaining process, something we have been denied by the current government.

It’s for these reasons that earlier this fall 96% of our members voted in support of job action, and it’s why we are currently working-to-rule.

It’s going to take everyone working together to make our education system the best it can be. It’s going to take a lot of change – big and small – to make Nova Scotia’s future strong. We want to talk. We want to listen. But if it takes working-to-rule to accomplish needed investments, we’ve demonstrated we are willing to take that step.

We also want the ability to negotiate for better classroom conditions at the bargaining table. Our children’s future is too important to be wagered on political commitments. Teachers want to see positive measures enshrined so they can’t be taken away with the strike of a pen from the government.

Right now our primary objective is to get back to the bargaining table in order to reach a new agreement that is fair to students, teachers and families. We have been frustrated by the government’s lack of willingness to bargain in good faith, as I’m sure you are frustrated by the lack of a resolution to this situation.

Ultimately, teachers are taking this stand for a better education system. Hopefully soon, the government will come to the table willing to negotiate and not dictate so an agreement can be reached.

Liette Doucet

-30-

For more information, contact:

Angela Murray, PR coordinator, Nova Scotia Teachers Union
902- 479-4708, 902-497-0194 (cell)
amurray@nstu.ca @NSTeachersUnion

Download PDF version (298 KB)